International trade in medical services
International trade in medical services will become increasingly more important. For ensuring quality, well-known medical facilities are likely to invest (commercial presence) in other countries. Likely to be the destination of “consumption abroad” mode. Likely to be the supplier of patients mainly due to “poor quality” of medical care rather than the cost of care. International migration of foreign medical graduates will likely to be associated with commercial presence rather than traditional migration. New migration pattern will further encourage adoption of consumption abroad approach for reducing overall healthcare cost in both developed and low-income developing countries. Further expansion of consumption abroad will discourage purchase of expensive health insurance plans. In high medical care cost countries; international trade in health services will encourage purchase of catastrophic insurance plans. Health expenditure in the world was US$ 7.8 trillion in 2017, or about 10% of GDP and $1,080 per capita – up from US$ 7.6 trillion in 2016. ($60 trillion was the global income) $4.0 trillion in OECD countries, $800 billion in the remaining 160 countries of the world. Globalization has increased trading in health care services. Cost of international communication and travel has declined. Time lag has declined significantly and for electronic transfer of information, it has become almost zero (origin to destination). Cost of obtaining services of similar quality varies significantly among developing countries as well as between developing and developed countries of the world. There are types of medical care services that are extremely time sensitive. Waiting will rapidly reduce the benefit of treatment.
The benefit function declines rapidly. If the time lag between the onset of the condition and reservation benefit level is shorter than the time needed to travel to a country, the service will be demanded locally. Worldwide, 1.3 billion people do not have access to effective and affordable health care. Low- and middle-income countries bear 93% of the world's disease burden, yet account for only 18% of world income and 11% of global health spending. What governance structures are necessary to encourage the right mix of public and private health care provision? What regulatory framework is needed to induce businesses to provide insurance, provision and finance for health in poor countries? How can the fruits of medical knowledge and technologies be shared among rich and poor countries without destroying incentives to generate knowledge? What forms of international cooperation are conducive to the finance of health systems in developing countries? What international institutions are required to make health care for the poor an attractive opportunity for business?